Anwar, A. 2008. Bronchodilators: uses and prescribing rationale. Nurse Prescribing, 6,5, 215-219.

Asthma foundation of Victoria. 2010. Powdered inhaler technique. Availalbe URL <Accessed May 7>.

Asthma society of Canada. 2010. Use of spacers. Available URL <Accessed 2011, June 6>.

Barnett, M. 2010. Pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD patients. Journal of Community Nursing, 24, 6, 4-11.

Barnett, M. 2009. Management of breathlessness. Journal of Community Nursing, 23, 12, 6-13.

Bauldoff, G.S. and Diaz, P.T. 2006. Improving Outcomes for COPD Patients. The Nurse Practitioner, 31, 8, 26-43.

Booker, R. 2010. Managing severe COPD with frequent exacerbations. Practice Nurse, 39, 4, 13-19.

Booker, R. 2008. Pulse oximetry. Nursing Standard, 22, 30, 39-41.

Booker, R. 2007. Correct use of nebulisers. Nursing Standard, 22, 8, 39-41.

Boyd, R. and Stuart, P. (2005). Pressurised metered dose inhalers with spacers versus
nebulisers for beta-agonist delivery in acute asthma in children in the emergency department.Emerg Med J, 22, 641–642.

Cancer Institute of NSW. 2011. I can quit web page. Available URL <Accessed 2011, June 20>.

Carter, R. and Williams, J.S. 2008. Oximetry update: applications, limitations, and
new technologies. RT: The Journal for Respiratory Care Practitioners , March, 20-23.

Carr, S.J., Hill, K., Brooks, D., Goldstein, R.S., (2009) Pulmonary rehabilitation after acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients who previously completed a pulmonary rehabilitation program. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 29, 318–324.

Cigna, J.L. and Turner-Cigna, L.M. 2005. Rehabilitation for the home care patient with COPD. Home Healthcare Nurse, 23, 9, 578-584.

Colice, G.L. 2009. Getting back to the basics: administering inhaled bronchodilators. Respiratory Care, 54, 4, 455-457.

Considine, J. 2005. The role of nurses in preventing adverse events related to respiratory
dysfunction: literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49,6, 624–633.

Eaton, T., Young, P., Fergusson, W., Moodie, L., Zeng, I., O’Kane, F., Good, N., Rhodes, L., Poole, P., and Kolbe, J. 2009. Does early pulmonary rehabilitation reduce acute health-care utilisation in COPD patients admitted with an exacerbation? A randomized controlled study. Respirology, 14, 230-238.

Faager, G., Stahle, A., and Larsen, F.F. 2008. Influence of spontaneous pursed lips breathing on walking endurance and oxygen saturation in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clinical Rehabilitation, 22, 675–683.

Figure 1 Nursing. Available URL < Accessed 2011, May 30>.

Figure 2 Normal healthy bronchi and alveoli compared with a COPD affected bronchi and alveoli. Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 3>.

Figure 3. A typical COPD chest xray showing hyperinflation of the lungs and a flattening of the diagram. Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 3>.

Figure 4. Atelectosis in COPD (specifically emphysema). Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 3>.

Figure 6. Pulse oximeter. Available URL <Accessed 2011, April 23>.

Figure 7. Oxygen haemoglobin dissociation curve. Available URL <Accessed 2001, April 24>.

Figure 8. Nasal cannula. Available URL <Accessed 2011, April 24>.

Figure 9. Reservoir cannula. Available URL <Accessed 2011, April 24>.

Figure 10. Simple face mask or Hudson mask. Available URL <Accessed 2011, April 24>.

Figure 11. Non-rebreather mask. Available URL <Accessed 2011, April 24>.

Figure 12. Venturi or percentage mask. Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 24>.

Figure 13. The cycle of dyspnoea Available URL <Accessed 2011, June 28>.

Figure 14. Tripod position for breathing. Available URL <Accessed 2011, June 13>.

Figure 15. Pursed lip breathing technique. Available URL <Accessed 2011, June 13>.

Figure 16. Diaphragmatic breathing. Available URL <Accessed 2011, June 13>.

Figure 17. Action of beta2 agonists. Available <Accessed 2011, May 3>.

Figure 18. Nebuliser mask. Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 7>.

Figure 19. Nebuliser pump. Available URL www. <Accessed 2011, May 7>.

Figure 20. Metered dose inhaler. Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 7>.

Figure 21. Spacer with MDI attached. Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 7>.

Figure 22. Dry powder inhalers. Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 7>.

Figure 23. Spiriva handihaler. Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 7>.

Figure 24. COPD action plan. Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 30>.

Figure 25. Exercise and weight loss. Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 30>.

Figure 26. Bronchodilators Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 7>.

Figure 27. Stop and take time to slow your breathing. Available URL <Accessed 2011, June 28>.

Finesilver, C. (2003) Pulmonary assessment: what you need to know. Progress in cardiovascular nursing, spring, 18, 2, 83-92.

Hanania, N.A., and Donohue, J.F. 2007. Pharmacologic interventions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: bronchodilators. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, 4, 526-534.

Hillsman, D. 2008. Breathing Exercises in Respiratory Self Care: A manual for patients and their families. Available URL <Accessed 2011, March 30>.

Jantarakupt, P. and Porock, D. 2005. Dyspnoea management in lung cancer: applying the evidence from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oncology nursing forum, 32,4, 785-797.

John, L. 2006. Care and use of nebulisers. The Cardiothoracic Centre Liverpool. Available URL <Accessed 2011, April 30>.

Jones, J.S., and Summers, R.L. 2010. Is pulse oximetry useful in emergencies? RT: The Journal for Respiratory Care Practitioners, April, 14-18.

Kanervisto, M., Paavilainen, E., and Heikkila, J. 2007. Family dynamics in families of severe COPD patients. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16, 1498-1505.

Kaufman, G. 2010. Inhaled bronchodilators for chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Nursing Standard. 25, 5, 61-68.

Lyne, D. 2010. Diagnosis and management of patients with COPD in primary care. Nursing Standard. 25, 8, 49-57.

Lynes, D. and Kelly, C. 2009. Domiciliary oxygen therapy: assessment and management.
Nursing Standard, 23, 20, 50-56.

Lung association of Saskatchewan. 2011. Factsheet: breathlessness. Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 15>.

Lung association of Saskatchewan. 2011. Factsheet: energy conservation. Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 15>.

Marieb, N. and Hoehn, K. 2010 Human anatomy and physiology. 8th edn, Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco.

McGloin, S. 2008. Administration of oxygen therapy. Nursing Standard, 22, 21, 46-48.

McKenzie, D.K., Abramson, M., Crockett, A.J., Glasgow, N., Jenkins, S., McDonald, C., Wood‐Baker, R., and Frith P.A. 2010. The Australian Lung Foundation COPD‐X Plan: Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for the management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 22>.

McKenzie, D.K., and Withell, K. 2007. The Australian Lung Foundation COPD Action plan. Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 30>.

McKenzie, D.K., Frith, P.A., Burdon, J.G.W. and Town, G.I. 2003. The COPDX plan: Australian and New Zealand guidelines for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. MJA 178, 6, S1–S40. Available URL: <Accessed 2011, April 29>.

Moore, T. 2007 Respiratory assessment in adults. Nursing Standard, 21, 49, 48-56.

National Asthma Foundation of Australia. 2008. Inhaler technique in adults
with asthma or COPD. Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 10>.

National Asthma Foundation of Australia 2010. Inhaler technique. Available URL <Accessed 2011, 20 June.>.

Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd. 2008. Figure 5 The structure of haemoglobin. Available URL <Accessed 2011, May 3>.

Odencrants, S., Ehnfors, M. and Grobe, S.J. 2007. Living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Part II. RNs’ experience of nursing care for patients with COPD and impaired nutritional status. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. 21,1, 56-63.

Orlando Health, Education & Development. 2010. Interpretation of the arterial blood gas: self-learning packet. Avaialble URL <Accessed 2011, March 30>.

Paz-Dıaz, H., Montes de Oca, M., Lopez, L.M. and Celli B.R. 2006. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves depression, anxiety, dyspnea and health status in patients with COPD. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 86, 1, 30-36.

Pierson, D.J. 2000 Pathophysiology and clinical effects of chronic hypoxia. Respiratory Care, 45, 1, 39-50.

Smith, S.K. 2005. Is your patient getting enough oxygen? LPN, 1, 2, 10-13.

Spiriva Handihaler. How to use spiriva . Available URL <Accessed 2011, June 3>.

Stich, J.C., and Cassella, D.M. 2009. Getting inspired about oxygen delivery devices. Nursing2009, September, 51-54.

Video 1. (n.d). Oxygen transportation. Available URL <Accessed 2011, March 15>.

Video 2. (n.d). Administering oxygen in COPD. Available URL <Accessed 2011, March 15>.

West, J.B. 2008 Pulmonary pathophysiology the essentials. 7th edn, Wolters Kluwer Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.

Yawn, B.P. 2011. Optimizing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease management in primary care. Southern Medical Journal, 104,2, 121-127.

ZuWallack, R.L. 2008. The roles of bronchodilators, supplemental oxygen, and ventilatory assistance in the pulmonary rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respiratory care, 53, 9, 1190 – 1195.